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2018 THE HUNGARIAN LABOUR MARKET 2018 Editors: Károly Fazekas, Ágnes Szabó-Morvai

The Hungarian Labour Market Yearbook series was launched in the year 2000 by the Institute of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences with the support of the National Employment Foundation. The yearbook presents the actual characteristics of the Hungarian labour market and employment policy, and provides an in-depth analysis of a topical issue each year. The editorial board has striven to deliver relevant and useful information on trends in the Hungarian labour market, the legislative and institutional background of the employment policy, and up-to-date findings from Hungarian and international research studies to civil servants, staff of the public employment service, municipalities, NGOs, public administration offices, education and research institutions, the press and electronic media. An important aspect is that the various analyses and the data published in the yearbook series should provide a good source of knowledge for higher education on the different topics of labour economics and human resources management. The yearbook series presents the main characteristics and internal trends of the Hungarian labour market. Continuing our previous editorial practice, we selected an area that we considered especially important from the perspective of understanding Hungarian labour market trends and  the effectiveness of evidence-based employment policy. Based on the decision of the editorial board the topic of ‘In Focus’ this year discusses the labour market situation of women.

The book can be downloaded in one file or by chapters:


ContentsForewordThe Hungarian labour market in 2017 (Tamás Bakó & Judit Lakatos)In Focus: Women in the labour marketIntroduction (Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)1 Women in the labour market1.1 The problem and its background and literature review (Júlia Varga)2 Women in the Hungarian labour market – Trends in the past ten years2.1 Labour force participation, employment, unemployment and wages (János Köllő)2.2 Is there a glass ceiling in Hungary? Gender wage gap by educational attainment (Anna Adamecz-Völgyi)2.3 Female and male managers (Beáta Nagy & Anna Sebők)K2.1 Women in science – in Europe and Hungary (Veronika Paksi & Dóra Groó)3 Women’s labour market performance in the EU and in Hungary3.1 Female employment in post-socialist EU member states (Flóra Samu, Ágota Scharle & Márton Csillag)3.2 Inequality in Europe – women, men and couples (Zsombor Cseres-Gergely)3.3 Work-family policies affecting female employment in Europe (Judit Kálmán4 Human capital, part I. Birth and early childhood4.1 Introduction (Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)4.2 The role of early childhood shocks in the emergence of gender inequalities (Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)4.3 The impacts of abortion restrictions on birth outcomes (Anna Adamecz-Völgyi, Anna Bárdits, Gábor Kertesi & Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)5 Human capital, part II. Test scores and school performance5.1 Changes in the gender gap in educational attainment (Júlia Varga)5.2 Gender gaps in test scores in international comparison (Zoltán Hermann)5.3 Girls in Hungarian vocational education (Márton Csillag, Bori Greskovics & Tamás Molnár)5.4 Horizontal gender segregation in higher education – STEM applications (Koen Declercq & Júlia Varga)6 Human capital, part III. The role of non-cognitive skills6.1 The impact of the increasing significance of non-cognitive skills on the labour market situation of women (Károly Fazekas)K6.1 Gender differences in the stability of personality traits over time (János Kiss Hubert & Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)6.2 Gender differences in preferences in the literature (Luca Flóra Drucker, Dániel Horn & Hubert János Kiss)K6.2 Gender differences in the use of cognitive skills at work (Rita Pető & Balázs Reizer)K6.3 The effect of motivation and feedback (Anna Lovász & Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)7 Human capital, part IV. Health and labour market participation among women (Anikó Bíró, Réka Branyiczki & Péter Elek)8 Marriage, having children8.1 The effects of teenage motherhood (Anna Adamecz-Völgyi)8.2 The impact of childcare availability on female labour supply (Ágnes Szabó-Morvai & Anna Lovász)K8.1 Development of nursery capacities (Ágota Scharle)8.3 Career before and after having a child (Anna Lovász, Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska & Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)8.4 The role of parenthood in the gender wage gap (Anna Lovász & Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska)K8.2 Opportunities provided by the hungarian birth cohort study (Balázs Kapitány & Zsuzsanna Veroszta)9 Division of labour in the household (Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)K9.1 Spillover between work and private life (Beáta Nagy, Gábor Király & Márta Radó)10 Classic labour market discrimination (Anna Lovász & Bori Simonovits)K10.1 Labour market discrimination, 1995–2016 (Gábor Kőrösi)11 The institutional context11.1 Changes in the regulatory environment affecting female employment (Ágnes Makó)11.2 Flexible work arrangements and other family-friendly measures among Hungarian companies (István János Tóth, Miklós Hajdu & Ágnes Makó)11.3 The main characteristics of women in public works (Irén Busch & Judit Lakatos)12 Dilemmas of Female40 (András Simonovits & Melinda Tir)Labour Market Policy Tools ( June 2017–May 2018) (Miklós Hajdu, Ágnes Makó, Fruzsina Nábelek & Zsanna Nyírő)Statistical dataIndex of tables and figures


2020/15 András Simonovits Indexing public pensions in progress to wages or prices Download publication

2020/15 Indexing public pensions in progress to wages or prices András Simonovits

Initial public pensions are indexed to the economy-wide average wages, but pensions in progress are indexed to prices, average wages or their combinations––varying across countries and periods. We create a simple overlapping cohorts framework to study the properties of indexing pensions in progress––emphasizing a neglected issue: close wage paths should imply close benefit paths even at real wage shocks. This robustness criterion of an equitable pension system is only satisfied by wage indexing, which in turn requires the adjustment of the accrual rate. To minimize the redistribution from low-earning short-lived citizens to high-earning long-lived ones, progression should be introduced.

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