2020 januárjától a MT/DP Műhelytanulmányok és a Budapest Working Papers sorozat egybeolvadt, és a továbbiakban KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok cím alatt közli az intézet kutatóinak tudományos munkáját. A KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok célja, hogy hozzászólásokat, vitát generáljanak, nem mentek át szakmai ellenőrzésen.

A megszűnt sorozatok tanulmányai az alábbi linkeken érhetőek el:

MT/DP műhelytanulmányok

BWP műhelytanulmányok

2020

2020/23 Lackó Mária Korai és időskori halálozások különbségei Európában a 2000-es évek első évtizedében KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/23 Korai és időskori halálozások különbségei Európában a 2000-es évek első évtizedében Lackó Mária

A tanulmányban 38-41 európai ország lakosságának halálozásában tapasztalt eltérésekkel és ezek magyarázatával foglalkozom. Összehasonlítom a korai (0-64 éves kor)  és az időskori (65 év felett)  mortalitási rátákat alakító tényezőket betegség-csoportonként és nemek szerint a 2009. évre. Egy szűkebb mintán kitérek az elkerülhető (ezen belül a megelőzhető és kezelhető) betegségekből adódó halálozási különbségekre a 2015. évre.

Az alkalmazott modell az országok lakosságának életkörülményeit és életmódját veszi számításba, így az egy főre jutó GDP-t, a földrajzi elhelyezkedést, a légszennyezettséget, a népesség képzettségét, a dohányzási és égetettszesz fogyasztási szokásokat, valamint az egészségügyi kiadásokat.

A legmeghökkentőbb eredmény a légszennyezettség hatásával kapcsolatos: a tüdőrák esetében a 65 év alatti férfiaknál ennek mortalitást magyarázó, kiemelkedően magas súlya szinte megegyezik a leginkább ismert kockázati tényezőjével, a dohányzáséval; sőt, az időseknél már jelentős a különbség a légszennyezettség „javára”.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)

2020/22 P. JEAN-JACQUES HERINGS – LÁSZLÓ Á. KÓCZY The Equivalence of the Minimal Dominant Set and the Myopic Stable Set for Coalition Function Form Games KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/22 The Equivalence of the Minimal Dominant Set and the Myopic Stable Set for Coalition Function Form Games P. JEAN-JACQUES HERINGS – LÁSZLÓ Á. KÓCZY

In cooperative games, the coalition structure core is, despite its potential emptiness, one of the most popular solutions. While it is a fundamentally static concept, the consideration of a sequential extension of the underlying dominance correspondence gave rise to a selection of non-empty generalizations. Among these, the payoff-equivalence minimal dominant set and the myopic stable set are defined by a similar set of conditions. We identify some problems with the payoff-equivalence minimal dominant set and propose an appropriate reformulation called the minimal dominant set. We show that replacing asymptotic external stability by sequential weak dominance leaves the myopic stable set unaffected. The myopic stable set is therefore equivalent to the minimal dominant set.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)

2020

2020/21 MÁRTON BENEDEK – JÖRG FLIEGE – TRI-DUNG NGUYEN Finding and verifying the nucleolus of cooperative games KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/21 Finding and verifying the nucleolus of cooperative games MÁRTON BENEDEK – JÖRG FLIEGE – TRI-DUNG NGUYEN

The nucleolus offers a desirable payoff-sharing solution in cooperative games, thanks to its attractive properties. Although computing the nucleolus is very challenging, the Kohlberg criterion offers a method for verifying whether a solution is the nucleolus in relatively small games (number of players n at most 15). This approach becomes more challenging for larger games as the criterion involves possibly exponentially large collections of coalitions, with each collection being potentially exponentially large. The aim of this work is twofold. First, we develop an improved Kohlberg criterion that involves checking the `balancedness’ of at most (n-1) sets of coalitions. Second, we exploit these results and introduce a novel descent-based constructive algorithm to find the nucleolus efficiently. We demonstrate the performance of the new algorithms by comparing them with existing methods over different types of games. Our contribution also includes the first open-source code for computing the nucleolus of moderately large games.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/15 András Simonovits Indexing public pensions in progress to wages or prices KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/15 Indexing public pensions in progress to wages or prices András Simonovits

Initial public pensions are indexed to the economy-wide average wages, but pensions in progress are indexed to prices, average wages or their combinations––varying across countries and periods. We create a simple overlapping cohorts framework to study the properties of indexing pensions in progress––emphasizing a neglected issue: close wage paths should imply close benefit paths even at real wage shocks. This robustness criterion of an equitable pension system is only satisfied by wage indexing, which in turn requires the adjustment of the accrual rate. To minimize the redistribution from low-earning short-lived citizens to high-earning long-lived ones, progression should be introduced.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/20 TAMÁS HAJDU – GÁBOR KERTESI – GÁBOR KÉZDI – ÁGNES SZABÓ-MORVAI The Effects of Expanding a Neonatal Intensive Care System on Infant Mortality and Long-Term Health Impairments KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/20 The Effects of Expanding a Neonatal Intensive Care System on Infant Mortality and Long-Term Health Impairments TAMÁS HAJDU – GÁBOR KERTESI – GÁBOR KÉZDI – ÁGNES SZABÓ-MORVAI

We study the effects of the geographic expansion of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) system and a Newborn Emergency Transportation System (NETS) on neonatal and infant mortality and long-term impairments. We utilize gradual expansion in Hungary, we use administrative and census data, and we identify the effects from longitudinal variation in access, using changing distance as an instrument. Improving access to delivering in a city with a NICU decreases 0-6-day mortality by 153/1000 (<1500g) and 24/1000 (<2500g). NETS effects are positive but smaller. Improved access saves lives in the long run, with zero overall effects on long-term impairments.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/19 Anikó Bíró - Tamás Hajdu - Gábor Kertesi - Dániel Prinz The Role of Place and Income in Life Expectancy Inequality: Evidence from Hungary KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/19 The Role of Place and Income in Life Expectancy Inequality: Evidence from Hungary Anikó Bíró - Tamás Hajdu - Gábor Kertesi - Dániel Prinz

 

Using mortality registers and administrative data on incomes and population, we develop new evidence on the magnitudes and sources of life expectancy inequality in Hungary. We document considerable inequality across geographies and income groups, and show that inequality has increased between 1991-2016. We show that avoidable deaths play a large role in life expectancy inequality. Income-related geographic inequalities in health behaviors, access to care, and healthcare use are all strongly correlated with the inequality in life expectancy.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/18 Anikó Bíró- Ágnes Szabó- Morvai Mass media coverage and vaccination uptake: evidence from the demand for meningococcal vaccinations in Hungary KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/18 Mass media coverage and vaccination uptake: evidence from the demand for meningococcal vaccinations in Hungary Anikó Bíró- Ágnes Szabó- Morvai

We estimate the effect of mass media coverage of the meningococcal disease on the uptake of meningococcal vaccinations in Hungary. Our analysis is based on administrative county-level data on vaccination purchases linked to indicators of media coverage of the meningococcal disease and to administrative records of disease incidence. Using geographical and time variations in these indicators, our fixed effects estimates indicate a strong positive effect of mass media coverage of the disease on the rate of vaccination with all types of the meningococcal vaccine. At the same time, we do not find evidence that disease incidence itself has a positive impact on vaccination. These findings are broadly in line with imperfect information and the principles of bounded rationality and highlight the responsibility of mass media in influencing health-related behaviours.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/17 Tamás Hajdu- Gábor Hajdu Temperature, climate change, and human conception rates: Evidence from Hungary KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/17 Temperature, climate change, and human conception rates: Evidence from Hungary Tamás Hajdu- Gábor Hajdu

In this paper, we examine the relationship between temperature and human conception rates and project the impacts of climate change by the mid-twenty-first century. Using complete administrative data on 6.8 million pregnancies between 1980 and 2015 in Hungary, we show that exposure to hot temperatures reduces the conception rate in the first few weeks following the exposure, but a partial rebound is observed after that. Absent adaptation, climate change is projected to increase seasonal differences in conception rates, and a decline is expected in terms of annual conception rates. This latter decline is driven by a change in the number of induced abortions and spontaneous fetal losses. The overall number of live births is unaffected. However, some newborns may experience non-negligible consequences because of the altering in utero temperature exposure due to a shift in the timing of conception

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/16 Péter Biró - Jens Gudmundsson Complexity of finding Pareto-efficient allocations of highest welfare KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/16 Complexity of finding Pareto-efficient allocations of highest welfare Péter Biró - Jens Gudmundsson

We allocate objects to agents as exemplified primarily by school choice. Welfare judgments of the object-allocating agency are encoded as edge weights in the acceptability graph.  The welfare of an allocation is the sum of its edge weights. We introduce the constrained welfare-maximizing solution, which is the allocation of highest welfare among the Pareto-efficient allocations. We identify conditions under which this solution is easily determined from a computational point of view. For the unrestricted case, we formulate an integer program and find this to be viable in practice as it quickly solves a real-world instance of kindergarten allocation and large-scale simulated instances. Incentives to report preferences truthfully are discussed briefly.

 

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)

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