2020 januárjától a MT/DP Műhelytanulmányok és a Budapest Working Papers sorozat egybeolvadt, és a továbbiakban KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok cím alatt közli az intézet kutatóinak tudományos munkáját. A KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok célja, hogy hozzászólásokat, vitát generáljanak, nem mentek át szakmai ellenőrzésen.

A megszűnt sorozatok tanulmányai az alábbi linkeken érhetőek el:

MT/DP műhelytanulmányok

BWP műhelytanulmányok

2020

2020/29 HÁLÓ BUDA – REIZER BALÁZS A sorkatonaság munkaerőpiaci hatásai Magyarországon KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/29 A sorkatonaság munkaerőpiaci hatásai Magyarországon HÁLÓ BUDA – REIZER BALÁZS

Dolgozatunkban adminisztratív járulékadatok segítségével vizsgáljuk a sorkatonaságban való részvétel bérekre gyakorolt hatását. Elemzésünkben különbségek-különbsége módszerrel vizsgáltuk, hogy változik a 2003-ban és 2004-ben bevonuló sorkatonák bére a be nem vonuló munkatársaikhoz képest. A sorkatonák bevonulás előtt 20 százalékkal kevesebbet kerestek, mint a hasonló tulajdonságokkal rendelkező ám be nem vonuló munkavállalók. A sorkatonaság után ez a bérhátrány kb. 3 százalékos bérelőnnyé változik. Mivel a sorkatonaság csak 6 hónapig tartott, ezért nem gondoljuk, hogy a gyors bérnövekedés csak a termelékenység növekedése miatt következett be. A legvalószínűbb magyarázat az, hogy cégek diszkriminálták a sorkatonákat bevonulás előtt, vagy pedig a cégek és a későbbi sorkatonák képességei nem illettek össze.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/27 PÉTER ELEK – ANIKÓ BÍRÓ Regional differences in diabetes across Europe – regression and causal forest analyses KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/27 Regional differences in diabetes across Europe – regression and causal forest analyses PÉTER ELEK – ANIKÓ BÍRÓ

We examine regional differences in diabetes within Europe, and relate them to variations in socio-economic conditions, comorbidities, health behaviour and diabetes management. Using SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) data, first, we estimate multivariate regressions, where the outcome variables are diabetes prevalence, diabetes incidence, and weight loss due to diet as an indicator of management. Second, we study the heterogeneous impact of the risk factors on the regional differences in incidence with causal random forests.

Compared to Western Europe, the transition odds to diabetes is 2.3-fold in Southern and 2.7-fold in Eastern Europe, which decreases to 2.0 and 2.1 after adjusting for individual characteristics. The remaining differences are explained by country-specific healthcare indicators. Based on the causal forest approach, the adjusted East-West difference is essentially zero for the lowest risk groups (tertiary education, no hypertension, no overweight) and increases substantially with these risk factors, but the South-West difference is much less heterogeneous. The prevalence of diet-related weight loss around the time of diagnosis also exhibits regional variation. The results suggest that more emphasis should be put on diabetes prevention among high-risk individuals in Eastern Europe.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/26 LÁSZLÓ Á. KÓCZY Core-stability over networks with widespread externalities KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/26 Core-stability over networks with widespread externalities LÁSZLÓ Á. KÓCZY

The Covid-19 epidemic highlighted the significance of externalities: contacts with other people do not only affect our chances of getting infected but also our entire network.

We introduce a model for coalitional network stability in networks with widespread externalities. The network function form generalises the partition function form of cooperative games in allowing the network structure to be taken into account. The recursive core for network function form games generalises the recursive core for such environments and its properties also rhyme with the corresponding inclusion properties of the optimistic and pessimistic recursive cores and can be seen as a modification of pairwise stability to a coalitional setting where the involvement of more players allows for the — partial — internalisation of the externalities, but we also allow residual players to endogenously respond to any externalities that may affect them. We present two simple examples to illustrate positive and negative externalities. The first is of a favour network and show that the core is nonempty when players must pay transfers to intermediaries; this simple setting also models economic situations such as airline networks. The second models social contacts during an epidemic and finds social bubbles as the solution.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/25 KATARÍNA CECHLÁROVÁ – ÁGNES CSEH– ZSUZSANNA JANKÓ – MARIÁN KIRES – LUKÁS MINO A quest for a fair schedule: The Young Physicists' Tournament KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/25 A quest for a fair schedule: The Young Physicists' Tournament KATARÍNA CECHLÁROVÁ – ÁGNES CSEH– ZSUZSANNA JANKÓ – MARIÁN KIRES – LUKÁS MINO

The Young Physicists Tournament is an established team-oriented scientific competition between high school students from 37 countries on 5 continents. The competition consists of scientific discussions called Fights. Three or four teams participate in each Fight, each of whom presents a problem while rotating the roles of Presenter, Opponent, Reviewer, and Observer among them.

 

The rules of a few countries require that each team announce in advance 3 problems they will present at the national tournament. The task of the organizers is to choose the composition of Fights in such a way that each team presents each of its chosen problems exactly once and within a single Fight no problem is presented more than once. Besides formalizing these feasibility conditions, in this paper we formulate several additional fairness conditions for tournament schedules. We show that the fulfillment of some of them can be ensured by constructing suitable edge colorings in bipartite graphs. To find fair schedules, we propose integer linear programs and test them on real as well as randomly generated data.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/24 ATTILA HAVAS – GYÖRGY MOLNÁR A multi-channel interactive learning model of social innovation KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/24 A multi-channel interactive learning model of social innovation ATTILA HAVAS – GYÖRGY MOLNÁR

We develop a new model of social innovation (SI) inspired by the multi-channel interactive learning model of business innovation. As opposed to the linear models of innovation, this model does not identify ‘stages’ of business innovation. Rather, it stresses that innovation is an interactive process, in which collaboration among various partners are crucial, as they possess different types of knowledge, all indispensable for successful innovation activities.

Having considered numerous definitions of SI, first we propose a new one, then adapt the multi-channel interactive learning model to SI. To do so, we identify the major actors in an SI process, their activities, interactions, modes of (co-)producing, disseminating and utilising knowledge. We also consider the micro and macro environment of a given SI.

We illustrate the analytical relevance of the proposed model by considering three real-life cases. The model can assist SI policy-makers, policy analysts, as well as practitioners when devising, implementing or assessing SI.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/23 Lackó Mária Korai és időskori halálozások különbségei Európában a 2000-es évek első évtizedében KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/23 Korai és időskori halálozások különbségei Európában a 2000-es évek első évtizedében Lackó Mária

A tanulmányban 38-41 európai ország lakosságának halálozásában tapasztalt eltérésekkel és ezek magyarázatával foglalkozom. Összehasonlítom a korai (0-64 éves kor)  és az időskori (65 év felett)  mortalitási rátákat alakító tényezőket betegség-csoportonként és nemek szerint a 2009. évre. Egy szűkebb mintán kitérek az elkerülhető (ezen belül a megelőzhető és kezelhető) betegségekből adódó halálozási különbségekre a 2015. évre.

Az alkalmazott modell az országok lakosságának életkörülményeit és életmódját veszi számításba, így az egy főre jutó GDP-t, a földrajzi elhelyezkedést, a légszennyezettséget, a népesség képzettségét, a dohányzási és égetettszesz fogyasztási szokásokat, valamint az egészségügyi kiadásokat.

A legmeghökkentőbb eredmény a légszennyezettség hatásával kapcsolatos: a tüdőrák esetében a 65 év alatti férfiaknál ennek mortalitást magyarázó, kiemelkedően magas súlya szinte megegyezik a leginkább ismert kockázati tényezőjével, a dohányzáséval; sőt, az időseknél már jelentős a különbség a légszennyezettség „javára”.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)

2020/22 P. JEAN-JACQUES HERINGS – LÁSZLÓ Á. KÓCZY The Equivalence of the Minimal Dominant Set and the Myopic Stable Set for Coalition Function Form Games KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/22 The Equivalence of the Minimal Dominant Set and the Myopic Stable Set for Coalition Function Form Games P. JEAN-JACQUES HERINGS – LÁSZLÓ Á. KÓCZY

In cooperative games, the coalition structure core is, despite its potential emptiness, one of the most popular solutions. While it is a fundamentally static concept, the consideration of a sequential extension of the underlying dominance correspondence gave rise to a selection of non-empty generalizations. Among these, the payoff-equivalence minimal dominant set and the myopic stable set are defined by a similar set of conditions. We identify some problems with the payoff-equivalence minimal dominant set and propose an appropriate reformulation called the minimal dominant set. We show that replacing asymptotic external stability by sequential weak dominance leaves the myopic stable set unaffected. The myopic stable set is therefore equivalent to the minimal dominant set.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)

2020

2020/21 MÁRTON BENEDEK – JÖRG FLIEGE – TRI-DUNG NGUYEN Finding and verifying the nucleolus of cooperative games KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/21 Finding and verifying the nucleolus of cooperative games MÁRTON BENEDEK – JÖRG FLIEGE – TRI-DUNG NGUYEN

The nucleolus offers a desirable payoff-sharing solution in cooperative games, thanks to its attractive properties. Although computing the nucleolus is very challenging, the Kohlberg criterion offers a method for verifying whether a solution is the nucleolus in relatively small games (number of players n at most 15). This approach becomes more challenging for larger games as the criterion involves possibly exponentially large collections of coalitions, with each collection being potentially exponentially large. The aim of this work is twofold. First, we develop an improved Kohlberg criterion that involves checking the `balancedness’ of at most (n-1) sets of coalitions. Second, we exploit these results and introduce a novel descent-based constructive algorithm to find the nucleolus efficiently. We demonstrate the performance of the new algorithms by comparing them with existing methods over different types of games. Our contribution also includes the first open-source code for computing the nucleolus of moderately large games.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/20 TAMÁS HAJDU – GÁBOR KERTESI – GÁBOR KÉZDI – ÁGNES SZABÓ-MORVAI The Effects of Expanding a Neonatal Intensive Care System on Infant Mortality and Long-Term Health Impairments KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/20 The Effects of Expanding a Neonatal Intensive Care System on Infant Mortality and Long-Term Health Impairments TAMÁS HAJDU – GÁBOR KERTESI – GÁBOR KÉZDI – ÁGNES SZABÓ-MORVAI

We study the effects of the geographic expansion of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) system and a Newborn Emergency Transportation System (NETS) on neonatal and infant mortality and long-term impairments. We utilize gradual expansion in Hungary, we use administrative and census data, and we identify the effects from longitudinal variation in access, using changing distance as an instrument. Improving access to delivering in a city with a NICU decreases 0-6-day mortality by 153/1000 (<1500g) and 24/1000 (<2500g). NETS effects are positive but smaller. Improved access saves lives in the long run, with zero overall effects on long-term impairments.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/19 Anikó Bíró - Tamás Hajdu - Gábor Kertesi - Dániel Prinz The Role of Place and Income in Life Expectancy Inequality: Evidence from Hungary KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/19 The Role of Place and Income in Life Expectancy Inequality: Evidence from Hungary Anikó Bíró - Tamás Hajdu - Gábor Kertesi - Dániel Prinz

 

Using mortality registers and administrative data on incomes and population, we develop new evidence on the magnitudes and sources of life expectancy inequality in Hungary. We document considerable inequality across geographies and income groups, and show that inequality has increased between 1991-2016. We show that avoidable deaths play a large role in life expectancy inequality. Income-related geographic inequalities in health behaviors, access to care, and healthcare use are all strongly correlated with the inequality in life expectancy.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/18 Anikó Bíró- Ágnes Szabó- Morvai Mass media coverage and vaccination uptake: evidence from the demand for meningococcal vaccinations in Hungary KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/18 Mass media coverage and vaccination uptake: evidence from the demand for meningococcal vaccinations in Hungary Anikó Bíró- Ágnes Szabó- Morvai

We estimate the effect of mass media coverage of the meningococcal disease on the uptake of meningococcal vaccinations in Hungary. Our analysis is based on administrative county-level data on vaccination purchases linked to indicators of media coverage of the meningococcal disease and to administrative records of disease incidence. Using geographical and time variations in these indicators, our fixed effects estimates indicate a strong positive effect of mass media coverage of the disease on the rate of vaccination with all types of the meningococcal vaccine. At the same time, we do not find evidence that disease incidence itself has a positive impact on vaccination. These findings are broadly in line with imperfect information and the principles of bounded rationality and highlight the responsibility of mass media in influencing health-related behaviours.

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)
2020/17 Tamás Hajdu- Gábor Hajdu Temperature, climate change, and human conception rates: Evidence from Hungary KRTK-KTI Műhelytanulmányok Kiadvány letöltése

2020/17 Temperature, climate change, and human conception rates: Evidence from Hungary Tamás Hajdu- Gábor Hajdu

In this paper, we examine the relationship between temperature and human conception rates and project the impacts of climate change by the mid-twenty-first century. Using complete administrative data on 6.8 million pregnancies between 1980 and 2015 in Hungary, we show that exposure to hot temperatures reduces the conception rate in the first few weeks following the exposure, but a partial rebound is observed after that. Absent adaptation, climate change is projected to increase seasonal differences in conception rates, and a decline is expected in terms of annual conception rates. This latter decline is driven by a change in the number of induced abortions and spontaneous fetal losses. The overall number of live births is unaffected. However, some newborns may experience non-negligible consequences because of the altering in utero temperature exposure due to a shift in the timing of conception

Kiadvány letöltése (pdf)

Felhasználási feltételek
Impresszum
Intézményünk országos és nemzetközi hálózati kapcsolatát az NIIF program biztosítja
Közgazdaság- és Regionális Tudományi Kutatóközpont Közgazdaság-tudományi Intézet
© Copyright 2020. Minden jog fenntartva.